Interested in learning more about transhumanism but don’t know where to start? This page has it covered.

I list the best sources by subject – from general overviews of transhumanism, to discussions about AI, to tracts about automation and the future of work. Links and book reviews included.

General Overviews, History, Key Concepts, Core Principals



  • Max More and Natasha Vita-More, eds., The Transhumanist Reader: Classical and Contemporary Essays on the Science, Technology, and Philosophy of the Human Future (2013). Read review.
  • James Hughes, Citizen Cyborg: Why Democratic Societies Must Respond to the Redesigned Human of the Future (2004). Read review.
  • R. U. Sirius and Jay Cornell, Transcendence: The Disinformation Encyclopedia of Transhumanism and the Singularity (2015). Read review.
  • Ted Chu, Human Purpose and Transhuman Potential: A Cosmic Vision for Our Future Evolution (2013).
  • Yuval Noah Harari, Homo Deus: A Brief History of Tomorrow (2016).
  • Gregory R. Hansell and William Grassie, eds., H+/-: Transhumanism and Its Critics (2011).

Key Transhumanist Documents:

AI, Superintelligence

  • Nick Bostrom, Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies (2014).
  • Stuart Armstrong, Smarter Than Us: The Rise of Machine Intelligence (2014).
  • Luke Muehlhauser, Facing the Intelligence Explosion (2013).
  • Calum Chace, Surviving AI: The Promise and Peril of Artificial Intelligence (2015).
  • Eliezer Yudkowsky, Rationality: From AI to Zombies (2015).
  • Russell Blackford and Damien Broderick, Intelligence Unbound: The Future of Uploaded and Machine Minds (2014).


The Singularity, Rapid Technological Acceleration, The State of the Future


  • Ray Kurzweil, The Age of Spiritual Machines: When Computers Exceed Human Intelligence (1999).
  • Ray Kurzweil, The Singularity is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology (2005).
  • Damien Broderick, The Spike: How Our Lives Are Being Transformed by Rapidly Advancing Technologies (2001).
  • Nicholas Negroponte, Being Digital (1995). Read review.
  • Kevin Kelly, The Inevitable: Understanding the 12 Technological Forces that Will Shape the Future (2016).
  • Braden R. Allenby and Daniel Sarewitz, The Techno-Human Condition (2011).


Blog posts:


Automation, The Future of Work, Universal Basic Income

  • Martin Ford, The Lights in the Tunnel: Automation, Accelerating Technology and the Economy of the Future (2009).
  • Martin Ford, Rise of the Robots: Technology and the Threat of a Jobless Future (2015).
  • Federico Pistono, Robots Will Steal Your Job But That’s Ok: How to Survive the Economic Collapse and Be Happy (2012).
  • Eric Brynjolfsson and McAfee, The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies (2014).
  • Calum Chace, The Economic Singularity: Artificial Intelligence and the Death of Capitalism (2016).
  • Ben Way, Jobocalypse: The End of Human Jobs and How Robots Will Replace Them (2013).

Politics, Warfare and Privacy

  • Eric Schmidt and Jared Cohen, The New Digital Age: Reshaping the Future of People, Nations and Business (2013).


  • K. Eric Drexler, Radical Abundance: How A Revolution in Nanotechnology Will Change Civilization (2013).
  • K. Eric Drexler, Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology (1989).

Genomics, Life-Extension and the Future of Healthcare, Medicine and Biology


  • Francis Collins, The Language of Life: DNA and the Revolution in Personalised Medicine (2011).
  • George Church, Regenesis: How Synthetic Biology Will Reinvent Nature and Ourselves (2012).
  • J. Craig Venter, Life at the Speed of Light: From the Double Helix to the Dawn of Digital Life (2013).
  • Robert Freitas, Nanomedicine, Volume I: Basic Capabilities (1999).
  • Ramez Naam, More Than Human: Embracing the Promise of Biological Enhancement (2005).
  • Gregory Stock, Redesigning Humans: Choosing Our Genes, Changing Our Future (2002).


Bioconservatives On Human Enhancement


  • Leon Kass, Life, Liberty and the Defence of Human Dignity (2002).
  • Francis Fukuyama, Our Posthuman Future: Consequences of the Biotechnology Revolution (2002).


Transgender Movement, Disability Rights, Morphological Freedom

  • Martine Rothblatt, From Transgender to Transhuman: A Manifesto on the Freedom of Form (2011).
  • Fiona Kumari Campbell, Contours of Ableism: The Production of Disability and Abledness (2009).

Proto-transhumanist Writing

Thinkers who anticipated aspects of modern transhumanism. (Will update with texts and links shortly).

17th century:

18th century:

19th century:

20th century:

Transhumanists and Technoprogressives in the 70s, 80s and 90s


  • Timothy Leary, Exo-Psychology: A Manual on the Use of the Human Nervous System (1977).
  • FM-2030, Are You A Transhuman?: Monitoring and Stimulating Your Personal Rate of Growth in a Rapidly Changing World (1989).
  • Ed Regis, The Great Mambo Chicken and the Transhuman Condition (1990).
  • Brian Alexander, Rapture: A Raucous Tour of Cloning, Transhumanism, and the New Era of Immortality (2003).
  • W. Patrick McCray, The Visioneers: How A Group of Elite Scientists Pursued Space Colonies, Nanotechnologies, and a Limitless Future (2012).
  • Alvin Toffler, Future Shock (London: The Bodley Head, 1970).
  • Robert C. W. Ettinger, The Prospect of Immortality, (1962).
  • Robert C. W. Ettinger, Man Into Superman (1972).
  • FM Esfandiary (FM-2030), Up-Wingers (New York: The John Day Company, 1973).
  • FM Esfandiary (FM-2030), Optimism One: The Emerging Radicalism (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1970).
  • FM Esfandiary (FM-2030), Are You A Transhuman?: Monitoring and Stimulating Your Personal Rate of Growth in a Rapidly Changing World (New York: Warner Books, 1989).


Surprising Affiliates (or like ideas by non-transhumanists)

Worst Reads on Transhumanism

  • David Livingstone, Transhumanism: The History of a Dangerous Idea (2015).
  • Simon Young, Designer Evolution: A Transhumanist Manifesto (2006).

Transhumanist organizations and think tanks

Future of Humanity Institute (FHI), Oxford, UK.
Machine Intelligence Research Institute (MIRI), Berkeley, California.
Centre for the Study of Existential Risk (CSER), Cambridge, UK.
Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies (IEET), Connecticut, USA.
Open AI, San Francisco, California.
Singularity University, Mountain View, California.
Humanity + (formerly the World Transhumanist Association), Los Angeles, California.
The Foresight Institute, Palo Alto, California.
Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senesence (SENS Foundation), Mountain View, California.